no, but dean domino, that is in some way a companion, has this ability
Boone smokes whenever he has cigarettes in his inventory. If he actually runs out I'm not sure; never really paid attention as I always load him down with any singles, packs, or cartons I find while looting different locals, and I always leave one carton in his inventory. Also, if you'll notice, whenver you have Cass as a companion, she will mention whiskey if she has none in her inventory. If you put a bottle in her inventory, I do believe the bottle eventually becomes an empty one.
When they smoke they don't use up the cigarettes, the pack just stays (this may be because there's no game mechanic for smoking, it's cosmetic). If you put food and drinks in your companions inventories before sending them to the Lucky 38 they'll eat and drink these rather than raid your supply.