Partially. Nuka-cola bottles in the 'world' such as those sitting around on shelves are not random and will be present in every playthrough of the game. This also applies to nuka-cola quantum.
Nuka-cola (and nuka-cola quantum) found in the Nuka-Cola Vending Machines however, are random. These will change from game to game, and may even be different if you load an earlier save and open the vending machine again.